Their really full statement happens in Negative Dialectics, which is chatted about later on
Appropriately, in the creating a beneficial “dialectic regarding enlightenment” brand new article writers at exactly the same time try to manage a beneficial dialectical enlightenment of enlightenment perhaps not in place of Hegel’s Phenomenology from Soul. “Determinate negation” (bestimmte naviguer sur ce site Negation) shows that immanent problem ‘s the means to fix wrest information out-of ideology. A good dialectical enlightenment away from enlightenment “shows per visualize since the software. They will teach me to comprehend away from [the new image’s] have the admission of falseness hence cancels its fuel and give they over to insights” (De 18). Beyond and owing to including determinate negation, a dialectical enlightenment regarding enlightenment as well as recalls the origin and mission from imagine by itself. Like recollection is the performs of style due to the fact care about-meditation away from thought (der Begriff als Selbstbesinnung de l’ensemble des Denkens, De- 32). Abstract thinking-meditation demonstrates that consider is inspired by the actual corporeal means and you will desires which get destroyed when imagine becomes just means away from individual care about-conservation. In addition it suggests that the objective of believe is not so you can remain the latest blind domination away from characteristics and you may human beings but to suggest with the reconciliation. Adorno ends up the important points from the conception within his further lectures to the Kant (KC), integrity (PMP), and you may metaphysics (MCP) as well as in their guides to your Husserl (AE), Hegel (H), and you will Heidegger (JA).
step three. Important Social Concept
Dialectic out of Enlightenment presupposes a critical societal theory in debt so you’re able to Karl Marx. Adorno checks out Marx while the a good Hegelian materialist whose criticism out-of capitalism unavoidably comes with a complaints of ideologies one capitalism restores and you can means. One of them is exactly what Marx called “this new fetishism of commodities.” Marx lined up his critique out of item fetishism facing bourgeois personal experts just who only determine the fresh capitalist cost savings but, by doing so, while doing so misdescribe they and prescribe an incorrect social eyes. According to Marx, bourgeois economists always ignore the exploitation built-in so you can capitalist design. It don’t remember that capitalist manufacturing, for everybody its facial skin “freedom” and you may “equity,” need certainly to extract extra worth regarding labor of working-class. Such as for example typical firms and customers not as much as capitalist standards, bourgeois economists cure new commodity as an effective fetish. They address it because if they have been a natural object, having a lifetime of its very own, one to physically identifies other merchandise, inside liberty on people relationships that really suffer all of the merchandise. Marx, by contrast, argues you to definitely whichever tends to make something a product goes back to people requires, wants, and you will means. The latest commodity do not have “play with worth” if it didn’t meet person wants. It can n’t have “change worth” in the event the not one person planned to exchange they to have another thing. And its particular replace worth could not be computed should your item failed to tell almost every other merchandise an effective “value” created by the fresh new expenses out of peoples labor stamina and counted by the the average labor day socially needed seriously to develop products of numerous types.
Adorno’s societal concept tries to generate Marx’s central knowledge appropriate so you’re able to “late capitalism.” In the event into the arrangement having Marx’s data of one’s commodity, Adorno thinks their feedback of item fetishism doesn’t wade much sufficient. High changes has took place the structure regarding capitalism just like the Marx’s go out. This calls for revisions into many subject areas: the fresh dialectic ranging from pushes out of creation and relationships of design; the relationship ranging from state and you may discount; the sociology regarding kinds and you can group consciousness; the sort and purpose of ideology; while the role regarding professional societies, such modern artwork and you may societal concept, for the criticizing capitalism and requiring this new transformation of area since the a complete.
An important clues to these changes come from a theory out of reification proposed by the Hungarian socialist Georg Lukacs in the 1920s and out of interdisciplinary tactics and you will arguments conducted of the members of brand new Institute away from Societal Lookup regarding 1930s and you will 1940s. Strengthening on the Max Weber’s idea off rationalization, Lukacs argues your capitalist cost savings no longer is you to definitely industry away from area near to other people. As an alternative, product replace is just about the central organizing concept for everybody circles out of community. This permits product fetishism to help you permeate every public institutions (age.grams., legislation, government, journalism) and all the instructional professions, in addition to values. “Reification” means “the fresh structural procedure in which the new product setting penetrates lifestyle inside the capitalist area.” Lukacs try especially concerned with exactly how reification produces people “feel like simple anything obeying the latest inexorable rules of your areas” (Zuidervaart 1991, 76).